Appendix

Parts of Speech Cheat Sheet

Noun

Description Refers to a person, place, thing, or idea.
Examples runner, snow, notebook, thunder, tree, house, mouse, car, sushi, liberty, belief, justice, dishonesty, creativity, crowd, team, committee, Empire State Building, New York
Tips If you can perceive something through one of your five senses — sight, sound, smell, taste, or touch — it is probably a noun. Nouns also include abstract words, such as justice and truth. A proper noun is a type of noun that refers to a specific person, place, etc.

Pronoun

Description Often refers back to or replaces a noun or another pronoun.
Examples I, we, you, they, he, she, it, which, who, whom, that, these, those, either, one, some, each, everyone, anybody, neither
Tips Pronouns are kind of like vague nouns.

Verb

Description Usually describes existence or action.
Examples be, feel, hear, seem, shout, run, talk, walk, would, do, leave, help, occur, receive, recognize, judge, become, observe, annoy
Tips Verbs can be divided into three main types: action verbs, linking verbs, and auxiliary (helping) verbs. Run is an example of an action verb, be is the most common linking verb, and would and have are examples of auxiliary verbs.

Adjective

Description Modifies a noun or pronoun.
Examples tall, red, large, lumpy, idealistic, exhausted, grumpy, lovely, inexpensive
Tips Articles — a, an, and the — are a subcategory of adjectives.

Adverb

Description Modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Examples swiftly, quickly, extremely, angrily, sadly, quietly, often, very, too, not, never, sometimes, frequently, here
Tips Many adverbs end in ly, although some ly words — for example, lovely and friendly — are adjectives.

Preposition

Description Relates two words or phrases to each other.
Examples to, at, from, on, until, for, during, by, in, under, over, with, through, throughout, about, before
Tips Most prepositions are small words. They are usually found at the beginning of a prepositional phrase, such as in the house, by the lake, or through the years.

Conjunction

Description Links together words or groups of words.
Examples Coordinating: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet
Subordinating: because, since, as, if, so that, unless, until, even though, although, when
Correlative: either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also
Tips There are three main types of conjunctions: coordinating, subordinating, and correlative. All seven coordinating conjunctions appear above. The lists of subordinating and correlative conjunctions are partial ones.

Interjection

Description Short utterance or exclamation.
Examples Oh. Hurray! Aha!
Tips Not particularly relevant for a business environment, at least not in written communications.